Betanin a betacyanin pigment purified from fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica induces apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia Cell line-K562

No Thumbnail Available
Sreekanth, Devalraju
Arunasree, M. K.
Roy, Karnati R.
Chandramohan Reddy, T.
Reddy, Gorla V.
Reddanna, Pallu
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Betalains are water-soluble nitrogenous vacuolar pigments present in flowers and fruits of many caryophyllales with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study the antiproliferative effects of betanin, a principle betacyanin pigment, isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica, was evaluated on human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line (K562). The results show dose and time dependent decrease in the proliferation of K562 cells treated with betanin with an IC50 of 40 μM. Further studies involving scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the apoptotic characteristics such as chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing. Agarose electrophoresis of genomic DNA of cells treated with betanin showed fragmentation pattern typical for apoptotic cells. Flow cytometric analysis of cells treated with 40 μM betanin showed 28.4% of cells in sub G0/G1 phase. Betanin treatment to the cells also induced the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, down regulation Bcl-2, and reduction in the membrane potentials. Confocal microscopic studies on the cells treated with betanin suggest the entry of betanin into the cells. These studies thus demonstrate that betanin induces apoptosis in K562 cells through the intrinsic pathway and is mediated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and PARP cleavage. The antiproliferative effects of betanin add further value to the nutritional characteristics of the fruits of O. ficus-indica. © 2007 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Apoptosis, Betanin, Chronic myeloid leukemia, Opuntia ficus-indica
Phytomedicine. v.14(11)